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Photoshop was created in by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, it has become the de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, to the point that Photoshop has become a generic trademark leading to its use as a verb such as "to Photoshop an image," " photoshopping " and " photoshop contest ", though Adobe discourages such use.
Photoshop has vast support for graphic file formats but also uses its own PSD and PSB file formats which support all the aforementioned features. In addition to raster graphics, it has limited abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics especially through clipping path , 3D graphics and video.
Photoshop's feature set can be expanded by Photoshop plug-ins , programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that can run inside it and offer new or enhanced features. Photoshop's naming scheme was initially based on version numbers. However, in October , following the introduction of Creative Suite branding, each new version of Photoshop was designated with "CS" plus a number; e. Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were also distributed in two different editions: In June , with the introduction of Creative Cloud branding, Photoshop's licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service rental model and the "CS" suffixes were replaced with "CC".
Adobe also plans to launch a full-version of Photoshop for the iPad in It is currently a licensed software. Photoshop was developed in by the American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll , a PhD student at the University of Michigan , began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program.
Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.
Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document. These include layers with masks , transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors , clipping paths , and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality.
A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes. Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension. PSB, which stands for "Photoshop Big" also known as "large document format". A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to , pixels and the length limit to around 4 Exabytes.
The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.
Because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are widely used and supported to some extent by most competing software. Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins.
Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe's specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications.
There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation. The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resultant images can be processed by Photoshop.
Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching.
These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background. The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush.
The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image. Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines. These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc.
The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations. The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section.
This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The "crop" tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document.
By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped.
The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased. The "slice" and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.
The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical.
This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the "marquee" tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option.
Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as "marching ants". To set a specific size or ratio, the tool option bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height.
Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to image tab and select crop. The lasso tool is similar to the "marquee" tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand.
The regular "lasso" tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The "marching ants" will indicate if a selection has been made. The "polygonal lasso" tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines.
Unlike the regular "lasso" tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.
It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor move over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the "marching ants" once the selection has been closed. The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool.
The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The "marching ants" allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image.
One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values. One click will select all neighboring pixels of similar value within a tolerance level set by the user. If the eyedropper tool is selected in the options bar, then the magic wand can determine the value needed to evaluate the pixels; this is based on the sample size setting in the eyedropper tool.
This tool is inferior to the quick selection tool which works much the same but with much better results and more intuitive controls. The user must decide what settings to use or if the image is right for this tool. The Eraser tool erases content based on the active layer.
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Misalnya teman saya kemarin membuat sebuah Foto yang biasa-biasa saja tetapi setelah mengeditnya bisa menjadi 3D. Just use reddit search: Retrieved March 24, PSB, which stands for "Photoshop Big" also known as "large document format". And I already saved the project as a version so can't go back to as won't open it anymore. The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values.
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